我想沿特定路径对对象进行动画处理

2021/01/16 17:51 · jquery ·  · 0评论

我必须在路径上移动小矩形。单击画布内部后,矩形将移动。

我无法为其设置动画,因为对象仅跳到所需的点。

请在Fiddle上找到代码

的HTML

<canvas id="myCanvas" width=578 height=200></canvas>

的CSS

#myCanvas {
    width:578px;
    height:200px;
    border:2px thin;
}

的JavaScript

var myRectangle = {
    x: 100,
    y: 20,
    width: 25,
    height: 10,
    borderWidth: 1
};

$(document).ready(function () {
    $('#myCanvas').css("border", "2px solid black");
    var canvas = document.getElementById('myCanvas');
    var context = canvas.getContext('2d');
    var cntxt = canvas.getContext('2d');
    drawPath(context);
    drawRect(myRectangle, cntxt);

    $('#myCanvas').click(function () {
        function animate(myRectangle, canvas, cntxt, startTime) {
            var time = (new Date()).getTime() - startTime;
            var linearSpeed = 10;
            var newX = Math.round(Math.sqrt((100 * 100) + (160 * 160)));
            if (newX < canvas.width - myRectangle.width - myRectangle.borderWidth / 2) {

                myRectangle.x = newX;

            }


            context.clearRect(0, 0, canvas.width, canvas.height);
            drawPath(context);
            drawRect(myRectangle, cntxt);

            // request new frame
            requestAnimFrame(function () {
                animate(myRectangle, canvas, cntxt, startTime);
            });
        }
        drawRect(myRectangle, cntxt);
        myRectangle.x = 100;
        myRectangle.y = 121;
        setTimeout(function () {
            var startTime = (new Date()).getTime();
            animate(myRectangle, canvas, cntxt, startTime);
        }, 1000);

    });
});

$(document).keypress(function (e) {
    if (e.which == 13) {


        $('#myCanvas').click();

    }
});

function drawRect(myRectangle, cntxt) {

    cntxt.beginPath();
    cntxt.rect(myRectangle.x, myRectangle.y, myRectangle.width, myRectangle.height);
    cntxt.fillStyle = 'cyan';
    cntxt.fill();

    cntxt.strokeStyle = 'black';
    cntxt.stroke();
};

function drawPath(context) {

    context.beginPath();
    context.moveTo(100, 20);

    // line 1
    context.lineTo(200, 160);
    // quadratic curve
    context.quadraticCurveTo(230, 200, 250, 120);

    // bezier curve
    context.bezierCurveTo(290, -40, 300, 200, 400, 150);

    // line 2
    context.lineTo(500, 90);
    context.lineWidth = 5;
    context.strokeStyle = 'blue';
    context.stroke();
};

这是如何沿特定路径移动对象

在此处输入图片说明

动画涉及随着时间的流逝。因此,对于动画的每个“帧”,您都需要知道在何处绘制运动对象(矩形)的XY坐标。

此代码接受百分比完成率(0.00到1.00),并返回XY坐标,即沿路径段的百分比。例如:

  • 0.00将返回直线(或曲线)开始处的XY。
  • 0.50将返回直线(或曲线)中间的XY。
  • 1.00将在行(或曲线)的末尾返回XY。

这是沿一条线以指定百分比获取XY的代码:

// line: percent is 0-1
function getLineXYatPercent(startPt,endPt,percent) {
    var dx = endPt.x-startPt.x;
    var dy = endPt.y-startPt.y;
    var X = startPt.x + dx*percent;
    var Y = startPt.y + dy*percent;
    return( {x:X,y:Y} );
}

这是沿二次贝塞尔曲线以指定百分比获得XY的代码:

// quadratic bezier: percent is 0-1
function getQuadraticBezierXYatPercent(startPt,controlPt,endPt,percent) {
    var x = Math.pow(1-percent,2) * startPt.x + 2 * (1-percent) * percent * controlPt.x + Math.pow(percent,2) * endPt.x; 
    var y = Math.pow(1-percent,2) * startPt.y + 2 * (1-percent) * percent * controlPt.y + Math.pow(percent,2) * endPt.y; 
    return( {x:x,y:y} );
}

这是沿三次贝塞尔曲线获得指定百分比的XY的代码:

// cubic bezier percent is 0-1
function getCubicBezierXYatPercent(startPt,controlPt1,controlPt2,endPt,percent){
    var x=CubicN(percent,startPt.x,controlPt1.x,controlPt2.x,endPt.x);
    var y=CubicN(percent,startPt.y,controlPt1.y,controlPt2.y,endPt.y);
    return({x:x,y:y});
}

// cubic helper formula at percent distance
function CubicN(pct, a,b,c,d) {
    var t2 = pct * pct;
    var t3 = t2 * pct;
    return a + (-a * 3 + pct * (3 * a - a * pct)) * pct
    + (3 * b + pct * (-6 * b + b * 3 * pct)) * pct
    + (c * 3 - c * 3 * pct) * t2
    + d * t3;
}

这是如何将所有内容组合在一起以动画化路径的各个部分

// calculate the XY where the tracking will be drawn

if(pathPercent<25){
    var line1percent=pathPercent/24;
    xy=getLineXYatPercent({x:100,y:20},{x:200,y:160},line1percent);
}
else if(pathPercent<50){
    var quadPercent=(pathPercent-25)/24
    xy=getQuadraticBezierXYatPercent({x:200,y:160},{x:230,y:200},{x:250,y:120},quadPercent);
}
else if(pathPercent<75){
    var cubicPercent=(pathPercent-50)/24
    xy=getCubicBezierXYatPercent({x:250,y:120},{x:290,y:-40},{x:300,y:200},{x:400,y:150},cubicPercent);
}
else {
    var line2percent=(pathPercent-75)/25
    xy=getLineXYatPercent({x:400,y:150},{x:500,y:90},line2percent);
}

// draw the tracking rectangle
drawRect(xy);

这是工作代码和小提琴:http : //jsfiddle.net/m1erickson/LumMX/

<!doctype html>
<html lang="en">
<head>

  <style>
      body{ background-color: ivory; }
      canvas{border:1px solid red;}
  </style>

  <link rel="stylesheet" href="http://code.jquery.com/ui/1.10.3/themes/smoothness/jquery-ui.css" />
  <script src="http://code.jquery.com/jquery-1.9.1.js"></script>
  <script src="http://code.jquery.com/ui/1.10.3/jquery-ui.js"></script>

  <script>

  $(function() {

      var canvas=document.getElementById("canvas");
      var ctx=canvas.getContext("2d");

      // set starting values
      var fps = 60;
      var percent=0
      var direction=1;

      // start the animation
      animate();

      function animate() {

          // set the animation position (0-100)
          percent+=direction;
          if(percent<0){ percent=0; direction=1; };
          if(percent>100){ percent=100; direction=-1; };

          draw(percent);

          // request another frame
          setTimeout(function() {
              requestAnimationFrame(animate);
          }, 1000 / fps);
      }


      // draw the current frame based on sliderValue
      function draw(sliderValue){

          // redraw path
          ctx.clearRect(0,0,canvas.width,canvas.height);
          ctx.lineWidth = 5;

          ctx.beginPath();
          ctx.moveTo(100, 20);
          ctx.lineTo(200, 160);
          ctx.strokeStyle = 'red';
          ctx.stroke();

          ctx.beginPath();
          ctx.moveTo(200, 160);
          ctx.quadraticCurveTo(230, 200, 250, 120);
          ctx.strokeStyle = 'green';
          ctx.stroke();

          ctx.beginPath();
          ctx.moveTo(250,120);
          ctx.bezierCurveTo(290, -40, 300, 200, 400, 150);
          ctx.strokeStyle = 'blue';
          ctx.stroke();

          ctx.beginPath();
          ctx.moveTo(400, 150);
          ctx.lineTo(500, 90);
          ctx.strokeStyle = 'gold';
          ctx.stroke();

          // draw the tracking rectangle
          var xy;

          if(sliderValue<25){
              var percent=sliderValue/24;
              xy=getLineXYatPercent({x:100,y:20},{x:200,y:160},percent);
          }
          else if(sliderValue<50){
              var percent=(sliderValue-25)/24
              xy=getQuadraticBezierXYatPercent({x:200,y:160},{x:230,y:200},{x:250,y:120},percent);
          }
          else if(sliderValue<75){
              var percent=(sliderValue-50)/24
              xy=getCubicBezierXYatPercent({x:250,y:120},{x:290,y:-40},{x:300,y:200},{x:400,y:150},percent);
          }
          else {
              var percent=(sliderValue-75)/25
              xy=getLineXYatPercent({x:400,y:150},{x:500,y:90},percent);
          }
          drawRect(xy,"red");

      }


      // draw tracking rect at xy
      function drawRect(point,color){
          ctx.fillStyle="cyan";
          ctx.strokeStyle="gray";
          ctx.lineWidth=3;
          ctx.beginPath();
          ctx.rect(point.x-13,point.y-8,25,15);
          ctx.fill();
          ctx.stroke();
      }

      // draw tracking dot at xy
      function drawDot(point,color){
          ctx.fillStyle=color;
          ctx.strokeStyle="black";
          ctx.lineWidth=3;
          ctx.beginPath();
          ctx.arc(point.x,point.y,8,0,Math.PI*2,false);
          ctx.closePath();
          ctx.fill();
          ctx.stroke();
      }

      // line: percent is 0-1
      function getLineXYatPercent(startPt,endPt,percent) {
          var dx = endPt.x-startPt.x;
          var dy = endPt.y-startPt.y;
          var X = startPt.x + dx*percent;
          var Y = startPt.y + dy*percent;
          return( {x:X,y:Y} );
      }

      // quadratic bezier: percent is 0-1
      function getQuadraticBezierXYatPercent(startPt,controlPt,endPt,percent) {
          var x = Math.pow(1-percent,2) * startPt.x + 2 * (1-percent) * percent * controlPt.x + Math.pow(percent,2) * endPt.x; 
          var y = Math.pow(1-percent,2) * startPt.y + 2 * (1-percent) * percent * controlPt.y + Math.pow(percent,2) * endPt.y; 
          return( {x:x,y:y} );
      }

      // cubic bezier percent is 0-1
      function getCubicBezierXYatPercent(startPt,controlPt1,controlPt2,endPt,percent){
          var x=CubicN(percent,startPt.x,controlPt1.x,controlPt2.x,endPt.x);
          var y=CubicN(percent,startPt.y,controlPt1.y,controlPt2.y,endPt.y);
          return({x:x,y:y});
      }

      // cubic helper formula at percent distance
      function CubicN(pct, a,b,c,d) {
          var t2 = pct * pct;
          var t3 = t2 * pct;
          return a + (-a * 3 + pct * (3 * a - a * pct)) * pct
          + (3 * b + pct * (-6 * b + b * 3 * pct)) * pct
          + (c * 3 - c * 3 * pct) * t2
          + d * t3;
      }


  });   // end $(function(){});

  </script>
</head>
<body>
    <canvas id="canvas" width=600 height=300></canvas>
</body>
</html>

如果要使用画布的内置Bezier曲线,则仍然需要自己进行数学计算。

您可以使用基数样条的此实现,并预先计算所有返回的点。

用法示例是这种小型香肠移动车沿坡道移动(由上面的基数样条生成):

斜率演示

完整的演示在这里(请随意剪切和复制)。

您需要做的主要事情是拥有点数组时找到要用于对象的两个点。这将为我们提供对象的角度:

cPoints = quantX(pointsFromCardinalSpline); //see below

//get points from array (dx = current array position)
x1 = cPoints[dx];
y1 = cPoints[dx + 1];

//get end-points from array (dlt=length, must be an even number)
x2 = cPoints[dx + dlt];
y2 = cPoints[dx + dlt + 1];

为了避免在陡峭的斜坡上拉伸,我们根据角度重新计算长度。为了获得一个近似的角度,我们使用原始的端点来获取一个角度,然后根据所需的长度和该角度来计算线的新长度:

var dg = getLineAngle(x1, y1, x2, y2);
var l = ((((lineToAngle(x1, y2, dlt, dg).x - x1) / 2) |0) * 2);

x2 = cPoints[dx + l];
y2 = cPoints[dx + l + 1];

现在我们可以通过从y位置减去垂直高度来沿坡度绘制“汽车”图。

您会注意到,“汽车”以可变速度运动。这是由于主样条的插值。

我们可以对其进行平滑处理,即使通过量化x轴也可以使速度看起来更高。它仍然不是完美的,因为在陡坡上,点之间的y距离将比在平面上大-我们确实需要二次量化,但是为此,我们仅做x轴。

这为我们提供了一个新的数组,其中每个x位置都有新的点:

function quantX(pts) {

    var min = 99999999,
        max = -99999999,
        x, y, i, p = pts.length,
        res = [];

    //find min and max of x axis
    for (i = 0; i < pts.length - 1; i += 2) {
        if (pts[i] > max) max = pts[i];
        if (pts[i] < min) min = pts[i];
    }
    max = max - min;

    //this will quantize non-existng points
    function _getY(x) {

        var t = p,
            ptX1, ptX2, ptY1, ptY2, f, y;

        for (; t >= 0; t -= 2) {
            ptX1 = pts[t];
            ptY1 = pts[t + 1];

            if (x >= ptX1) {
                //p = t + 2;

                ptX2 = pts[t + 2];
                ptY2 = pts[t + 3];

                f = (ptY2 - ptY1) / (ptX2 - ptX1);
                y = (ptX1 - x) * f;

                return ptY1 - y;
            }
        }
    }

    //generate new array per-pixel on the x-axis
    //note: will not work if curve suddenly goes backwards
    for (i = 0; i < max; i++) {
        res.push(i);
        res.push(_getY(i));
    }
    return res;
}

我们需要的另外两个功能是:一个计算一条线的角度,一个基于角度和长度计算端点:

function getLineAngle(x1, y1, x2, y2) {
    var dx = x2 - x1,
        dy = y2 - y1,
        th = Math.atan2(dy, dx);

    return th * 180 / Math.PI;
}

function lineToAngle(x1, y1, length, angle) {

    angle *= Math.PI / 180;

    var x2 = x1 + length * Math.cos(angle),
        y2 = y1 + length * Math.sin(angle);

    return {x: x2, y: y2};
}
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